A study published in JAMA Psychiatry in June 2020 has shown that adults with depressive symptoms experience an increased risk of mortality across the world and in different settings, especially in urban areas. In this cohort study of 145 862 participants in 21 countries, cardiovascular events and death increased by 20% in people with 4 or more depressive symptoms compared with people without. The relative risk increased in countries at all economic levels but was more than double as high in urban than rural areas.
Rajan S, McKee M, Rangarajan S, et al. Association of Symptoms of Depression With Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality in Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Countries. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online June 10, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1351